Georgia Tombstones (Part 2)
by Jayge 8^J
"Project Blue Beam is a conspiracy theory that claims that NASA is attempting to implement a New Age religion with the Antichrist at its head and start a New World Order, via a technologically-simulated Second Coming. The allegations were presented in 1994 by Quebecois journalist and conspiracy theorist Serge Monast, and later published in his book Project Blue Beam (NASA). Proponents of the theory allege that Monast and another unnamed journalist, who both died of heart attacks in 1996, were in fact assassinated, and that the Canadian government kidnapped Monast's daughter in an effort to dissuade him from investigating Project Blue Beam. The project was apparently supposed to be implemented in 1983, but it didn't happen. It was then set for implementation in 1995 and then 1996. Monast thought Project Blue Beam would be brought to fruition by the year 2000, really, definitely, for sure. The theory is widely popular (for a conspiracy theory) on the Internet, with many web pages dedicated to the subject, and countless YouTube videos explaining it. The actual source material, however, is very thin indeed. Monast lectured on the theory in the mid-1990s (a transcript of one such lecture is widely available), before writing and publishing his book, which has not been reissued by his current publisher and is all but unobtainable. The currently available pages and videos all appear to trace back to four documents: A transcript of the 1994 lecture by Monast, translated into English. A GeoCities page written by David Openheimer and which appears to draw on the original book. A page on educate-yourself.org
, compiled in 2005, which appears to include a translation of the book from the French. Monast's page in French Wikipedia. The French Wikipedia article is largely sourced from two books on conspiracy theories and extremism by Pierre-André Taguieff, a mainstream academic expert on racist and extremist groups. From these few texts have come a flood of green ink, in text and video form, in several languages. Even the French language material typically does not cite the original book but the English language pages on educate-yourself.org
. However, conspiracy theorists seem to use quantity as a measure of substance (much as alternative medicine uses appeal to tradition) and never mind the extremely few sources it all traces back to. Proponents of the theory have extrapolated it to embrace HAARP, 9/11, the Norwegian Spiral, chemtrails, FEMA concentration camps and Tupac Shakur. Everything is part of Project Blue Beam. It's well on its way to becoming the Unified Conspiracy Theory. Behold A Pale Horse, William Cooper's 1991 green ink magnum opus, has lately been considered a prior claim of, hence supporting evidence for, Blue Beam by advocates. The book is where a vast quantity of now-common conspiracy memes actually came from, so retrospectively claiming it as prior evidence is somewhere between cherrypicking and the Texas sharpshooter fallacy. However, the following quotes, from pages 180-181, intersect slightly with the specific themes of Blue Beam: It is true that without the population or the bomb problem the elect would use some other excuse to bring about the New World Order. They have plans to bring about things like earthquakes, war, the Messiah, an extra-terrestrial landing, and economic collapse. They might bring about all of these things just to make damn sure that it does work. They will do whatever is necessary to succeed. The Illuminati has all the bases covered and you are going to have to be on your toes to make it through the coming years. Can you imagine what will happen if Los Angeles is hit with a 9.0 quake, New York City is destroyed by a terrorist-planted atomic bomb, World War III breaks out in the Middle East, the banks and the stock markets collapse, Extraterrestrials land on the White House lawn, food disappears from the markets, some people disappear, the Messiah presents himself to the world, and all in a very short period of time? Can you imagine? The world power structure can, and will if necessary, make some or all of those things happen to bring about the New World Order. “Without a universal belief in the new age religion, the success of the new world order will be impossible!” The alleged purpose of Project Blue Beam is to bring about a global New Age religion, which is seen as a core requirement for the New World Order's dictatorship to be realised. There's nothing new in thinking of religion as a form of control, but the existence of multiple religions, spin-off cults, competing sects and atheists suggest that controlling the population entirely through a single religion isn't particularly easy. Past attempts have required mechanisms of totalitarianism such as the Inquisition. Monast's theory, however, suggests using sufficiently advanced technology to trick people into believing. Of course, the plan would have to assume that people could never fathom the trick at all — something contested by anyone sane enough not to swallow this particular conspiracy. The primary claimed perpetrator of Project Blue Beam is NASA, presented as a large and mostly faceless organization that can readily absorb such frankly odd accusations, aided by the United Nations, another old-time boogeyman of conspiracy theorists. According to Monast, the project has four steps: Step One requires the breakdown of all archaeological knowledge. This will apparently be accomplished by faking earthquakes at precise locations around the planet. Fake "new discoveries" at these locations "will finally explain to all people the error of all fundamental religious doctrines", specifically Christian and Muslim doctrines. This makes some degree of sense — if you want to usurp a current way of thinking you need to completely destroy it before putting forward your own. However, religious belief is notoriously resilient to things like facts. The Shroud of Turin is a famous example that is still believed by many to be a genuine shroud of Jesus as opposed to the medieval forgery that it has been conclusively shown to be. Prayer studies, too, show how difficult it is to shift religious conviction with mere observational fact — indeed, many theologians avoid making falsifiable claims or place belief somewhere specifically beyond observation to aid this. So what finds could possibly fundamentally destroy both Christianity and Islam, almost overnight, and universally all over the globe? Probably nothing. Yet, this is only step one of an increasingly ludicrous set of events that Project Blue Beam predicts will occur. Step Two involves a gigantic "space show" wherein three-dimensional holographic laser projections will be beamed all over the planet — and this is where Blue Beam really takes off. The projections will take the shape of whatever deity is most predominant, and will speak in all languages. At the end of this light show, the gods will all merge into one god, the Antichrist. This is a rather baffling plan as it seems to assume people will think this is actually their god, rather than the more natural twenty-first century assumption that it is a particularly opaque Coca Cola advertisement. Evidence commonly advanced for this is a supposed plan to project the face of Allah, despite its contradiction with Muslim belief of God's uniqueness, over Baghdad in 1991 to tell the Iraqis to overthrow Saddam Hussein. Someone, somewhere, must have thought those primitive, ignorant non-Western savages wouldn't have had television or advertising, and would never guess it was being done with mirrors. In general, pretty much anything that either a) involves light or b) has been seen in the sky has been put forward as evidence that Project Blue Beam is real, and such things are "tests" of the technology — namely unidentified flying objects. Existing display technology such as 3D projection mapping and holograms are put forward as foreshadowing the great light show in the sky. This stage will apparently be accomplished with the aid of a Soviet computer that will be fed "with the minute physio-psychological particulars based on their studies of the anatomy and electro-mechanical composition of the human body, and the studies of the electrical, chemical and biological properties of the human brain", and every human has been allocated a unique radio wavelength. The computers are also capable of inducing suicidal thoughts. The Soviets are (not "were") the "New World Order" people. Why NASA would use a Soviet computer when the USSR had to import or copy much of its computer technology from the West is not detailed. The second part of Step Two happens when the holograms result in the dissolution of social and religious order, "setting loose millions of programmed religious fanatics through demonic possession on a scale never witnessed before." The United Nations plans to use Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" as the anthem for the introduction of the new age one world religion. There is relatively little to debunk in this, the most widely remembered section of the Project Blue Beam conspiracy, as the idea is so infeasible. Citing actual existing communication technology is odd if the point is for the end product to appear magical, rather than just as cheap laser projections onto clouds. This hasn't stopped some very strange conspiracy theories about such things popping up. Indeed, the notion of gods being projected into the sky was floated in 1991 by conspiracy theorist Betty J. Mills. And US general (and CIA shyster extraordinaire), Edward Lansdale, actually floated a plan to fake a Second Coming over Cuba to get rid of Castro. Step Three is "Telepathic Electronic Two-Way Communication." It involves making people think their god is speaking to them through telepathy, projected into the head of each person individually using extreme low frequency radio waves. (Atheists will presumably hear an absence of Richard Dawkins.) The book goes to some lengths to describe how this would be feasible, including a claim that ELF thought projection caused the depressive illness of Michael Dukakis' wife Kitty. Step Four has three parts: Making humanity think an alien invasion is about to occur at every major city; Making the Christians think the Rapture is about to happen; A mixture of electronic and supernatural forces, allowing the supernatural forces to travel through fiber optics, coax, power and telephone lines to penetrate all electronic equipment and appliances, that will by then all have a special microchip installed. Then chaos will break out, and people will finally be willing — perhaps even desperate — to accept the New World Order. "The techniques used in the fourth step is exactly the same used in the past in the USSR to force the people to accept Communism." A device has apparently already been perfected that will lift enormous numbers of people, as in a Rapture. UFO abductions are tests of this device. Project Blue Beam proponents believe psychological preparations have already been made, Monast having claimed that 2001: A Space Odyssey, Star Wars and the Star Trek series all involve an invasion from space and all nations coming together (the first two don't, the third is peaceful contact) and that Jurassic Park propagandises evolution in order to make people think God's words are lies. The book detailed the theory. In the 1994 lecture, Monast detailed what would happen afterwards. All people will be required to take an oath to Lucifer with a ritual initiation to enter the New World Order. Resisters will be categorised as follows: Christian children will be kept for human sacrifice or sexual slaves. Prisoners to be used in medical experiments. Prisoners to be used as living organ banks. Healthy workers in slave labour camps. Uncertain prisoners in the international re-education center, thence to repent on television and learn to glorify the New World Order. The international execution centre. An as yet unknown seventh classification. Joel Engel's book Gene Roddenberry: The Myth and the Man Behind Star Trek was released in 1994, shortly before Monast's lecture on Project Blue Beam: “In May 1975, Gene Roddenberry accepted an offer from Paramount to develop Star Trek into a feature film, and moved back into his old office on the Paramount lot. His proposed story told of a flying saucer, hovering above Earth, that was programmed to send down people who looked like prophets, including Jesus Christ.” All the steps of the conspiracy theory were in the unmade mid-'70s Star Trek film script by Roddenberry, which were recycled for the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode Devil's Due, broadcast in 1991. There is no evidence of deliberate fraud on Monast's part; given his head was quite thoroughly full of squirrels and confetti by this time, it's entirely plausible that he thought this was the revelation of secret information in a guise safe for propagation. However, the actual source was so obvious that even other conspiracy theorists noticed. They confidently state it was obvious that Monast had been fed deceptive information by the CIA. Of course!" -- rationalwiki.org
"Serge Monast was a Québécois investigative journalist, poet, essayist and conspiracy theorist. He is known to English-speaking readers mainly for Project Blue Beam and associated conspiracy tropes. His works on Masonic conspiracy theories and the New World Order also remain popular with French-speaking conspiracy theorists and enthusiasts." -- Wikipedia
"A human microchip implant is typically an identifying integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being. This type of subdermal implant usually contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, law enforcement, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information. The first experiments with an RFID implant were carried out in 1998 by the British scientist Kevin Warwick. His implant was used to open doors, switch on lights, and cause verbal output within a building. After nine days the implant was removed and has since been held in the Science Museum (London). On 16 March 2009 British scientist Mark Gasson had an advanced glass capsule RFID device surgically implanted into his left hand. In April 2010 Gasson's team demonstrated how a computer virus could wirelessly infect his implant and then be transmitted on to other systems. Gasson reasoned that with implanted technology the separation between man and machine can become theoretical because the technology can be perceived by the human as being a part of their body. Because of this development in our understanding of what constitutes our body and its boundaries he became credited as being the first human infected by a computer virus. He has no plans to remove his implant. Several hobbyists have placed RFID microchip implants into their hands or had them inserted by others. Amal Graafstra, author of the book RFID Toys, asked doctors to place implants in his hands in March 2005. A cosmetic surgeon used a scalpel to place a microchip in his left hand, and his family doctor injected a chip into his right hand using a veterinary Avid injector kit. Graafstra uses the implants to access his home, open car doors, and to log on to his computer. With public interest growing, in 2013 he launched biohacking company Dangerous Things and crowdfunded the world's first implantable NFC transponder in 2014. He has also spoken at various events and promotional gigs including TEDx, and built a smartgun that only fires after reading his implant. Alejandro Hernandez CEO of Futura is known to be the first in Central America to have Dangerous Things' transponder installed in his left hand by Federico Cortes in November 2017. Mikey Sklar had a chip implanted into his left hand and filmed the procedure. Jonathan Oxer self-implanted an RFID chip in his arm using a veterinary implantation tool. Martijn Wismeijer, Dutch marketing manager for Bitcoin ATM manufacturer General Bytes, placed RFID chips in both of his hands to store his Bitcoin private keys and business card. Patric Lanhed sent a “bio-payment” of one euro worth of Bitcoin using a chip embedded in his hand. Marcel Varallo had an NXP chip coated in Bioglass 8625 inserted into his hand between his forefinger and thumb allowing him to open secure elevators and doors at work, print from secure printers, unlock his mobile phone and home, and store his digital business card for transfer to mobile phones enabled for NFC. Biohacker Hannes Sjöblad has been experimenting with NFC (Near Field Communication) chip implants since 2015. During his talk at Echappée Voléé 2016 in Paris, Sjöblad disclosed that he has also implanted himself between his forefinger and thumb and uses it to unlock doors, make payments, and unlock his phone (essentially replacing anything you can put in your pockets). Additionally, Sjöblad has hosted several "implant parties," where interested individuals can also be implanted with the chip. Researchers have examined microchip implants in humans in the medical field and they indicate that there are potential benefits and risks to incorporating the device in the medical field. For example, it could be beneficial for noncompliant patients but still poses great risks for potential misuse of the device. Destron Fearing, a subsidiary of Digital Angel, initially developed the technology for the VeriChip. In 2004, the VeriChip implanted device and reader were classified as Class II: General controls with special controls by the FDA; that year the FDA also published a draft guidance describing the special controls required to market such devices. About the size of a grain of rice, the device was typically implanted between the shoulder and elbow area of an individual’s right arm. Once scanned at the proper frequency, the chip responded with a unique 16-digit number which could be then linked with information about the user held on a database for identity verification, medical records access and other uses. The insertion procedure was performed under local anesthetic in a physician's office. Privacy advocates raised concerns regarding potential abuse of the chip, with some warning that adoption by governments as a compulsory identification program could lead to erosion of civil liberties, as well as identity theft if the device should be hacked. Another ethical dilemma posed by the technology, is that people with dementia could possibly benefit the most from an implanted device that contained their medical records, but issues of informed consent are the most difficult in precisely such people. In June 2007, the American Medical Association declared that "implantable radio frequency identification (RFID) devices may help to identify patients, thereby improving the safety and efficiency of patient care, and may be used to enable secure access to patient clinical information", but in the same year, news reports linking similar devices to cancer caused in laboratory animals had a devastating impact on the company's stock price and sales. In 2010, the company, by then called "PositiveID", withdrew the product from the market due to poor sales. In January 2012, PositiveID sold the chip assets to a company called VeriTeQ that was owned by Scott Silverman, the former CEO of Positive ID. In 2016, JAMM Technologies acquired the chip assets from VeriTeQ; JAMM's business plan was to partner with companies selling implanted medical devices and use the RFID tags to monitor and identify the devices. JAMM Technologies is co-located in the same Plymouth, Minnesota building as Geissler Corporation with Randolph K. Geissler and Donald R. Brattain listed as its principals. The website also claims that Geissler was CEO of PositiveID Corporation, Destron Fearing Corporation, and Digital Angel Corporation. In 2018, A Danish firm called BiChip released a new generation of microchip implant that is intended to be readable from distance and connected to Internet. The company released an update for its microchip implant to associate it with the Ripple cryptocurrency to allow payments to be made using the implanted microchip. In February 2006, CityWatcher, Inc. of Cincinnati, OH became the first company in the world to implant microchips into their employees as part of their building access control and security system. The workers needed the implants to access the company's secure video tape room, as documented in USA Today. The project was initiated and implemented by Six Sigma Security, Inc. The VeriChip Corporation had originally marketed the implant as a way to restrict access to secure facilities such as power plants. A major drawback for such systems is the relative ease with which the 16-digit ID number contained in a chip implant can be obtained and cloned using a hand-held device, a problem that has been demonstrated publicly by security researcher Jonathan Westhues and documented in the May 2006 issue of Wired magazine, among other places. The Baja Beach Club, a nightclub in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, once used VeriChip implants for identifying VIP guests. The Epicenter in Stockholm, Sweden is using RFID implants for employees to operate security doors, copiers, and pay for lunch. In 2017 Mike Miller, chief executive of the World Olympians Association, was widely reported as suggesting the use of such implants in athletes in an attempt to reduce problems in sport due to drug taking. Theoretically, a GPS-enabled chip could one day make it possible for individuals to be physically located by latitude, longitude, altitude, speed, and direction of movement. Such implantable GPS devices are not technically feasible at this time. However, if widely deployed at some future point, implantable GPS devices could conceivably allow authorities to locate missing persons and/or fugitives and those who fled from a crime scene. Critics contend, however, that the technology could lead to political repression as governments could use implants to track and persecute human rights activists, labor activists, civil dissidents, and political opponents; criminals and domestic abusers could use them to stalk and harass their victims; and child abusers could use them to locate and abduct children. Another suggested application for a tracking implant, discussed in 2008 by the legislature of Indonesia's Irian Jaya would be to monitor the activities of persons infected with HIV, aimed at reducing their chances of infecting other people. The microchipping section was not, however, included into the final version of the provincial HIV/AIDS Handling bylaw passed by the legislature in December 2008. With current technology, this would not be workable anyway, since there is no implantable device on the market with GPS tracking capability. Since modern payment methods rely upon RFID/NFC, it is thought that implantable microchips, if they were to ever become popular in use, would form a part of the cashless society. Verichip implants have already been used in nightclubs such as the Baja club for such a purpose, allowing patrons to purchase drinks with their implantable microchip. In a self-published report anti-RFID advocate Katherine Albrecht, who refers to RFID devices as "spy chips", cites veterinary and toxicological studies carried out from 1996 to 2006 which found lab rodents injected with microchips as an incidental part of unrelated experiments and dogs implanted with identification microchips sometimes developed cancerous tumors at the injection site (subcutaneous sarcomas) as evidence of a human implantation risk. However, the link between foreign-body tumorigenesis in lab animals and implantation in humans has been publicly refuted as erroneous and misleading and the report's author has been criticized over the use of "provocative" language "not based in scientific fact". Notably, none of the studies cited specifically set out to investigate the cancer risk of implanted microchips and so none of the studies had a control group of animals that did not get implanted. While the issue is considered worthy of further investigation, one of the studies cited cautioned "Blind leaps from the detection of tumors to the prediction of human health risk should be avoided". The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) of the American Medical Association published a report in 2007 alleging that RFID implanted chips may compromise privacy because there is no assurance that the information contained in the chip can be properly protected. Following Wisconsin and North Dakota, California issued Senate Bill 362 in 2007, which makes it illegal to force a person to have a microchip implanted, and provide for an assessment of civil penalties against violators of the bill. In 2008, Oklahoma passed 63 OK Stat § 63-1-1430 (2008 S.B. 47), that bans involuntary microchip implants in humans. On April 5, 2010, the Georgia Senate passed Senate Bill 235 that prohibits forced microchip implants in humans and that would make it a misdemeanor for anyone to require them, including employers. The bill would allow voluntary microchip implants, as long as they are performed by a physician and regulated by the Georgia Composite Medical Board. The state's House of Representatives did not take up the measure. On February 10, 2010, Virginia's House of Delegates also passed a bill that forbids companies from forcing their employees to be implanted with tracking devices. Washington State House Bill 1142-2009-10 orders a study using implanted radio frequency identification or other similar technology to electronically monitor sex offenders and other felons. The general public are most familiar with microchips in the context of tracking their pets. In the U.S., some Christian activists, including conspiracy theorist Mark Dice, the author of a book titled The Resistance Manifesto, make a link between the PositiveID and the Biblical Mark of the Beast, prophesied to be a future requirement for buying and selling, and a key element of the Book of Revelation. Gary Wohlscheid, president of These Last Days Ministries, has argued that "Out of all the technologies with potential to be the mark of the beast, VeriChip has got the best possibility right now"." -- Wikipedia
"In this latest book Joseph P Farrell examines the subject of mind control, but from a very unusual perspective, showing that its basic underlying philosophy, and goal, is not only cosmological in nature, but that the cosmology in view is very ancient, and that mind control of any sort, from the arts to hypnosis, remote electromagnetic technologies and “electroencephalographic dictionaries” has cosmological implications." -- Microcosm and Medium: The Cosmic Implications and Agenda of Mind Control Technologies publisher's description
A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
- Forms of money
- Banking models
- Bank Bailouts
- Widely accepted economic systems
- Widely accepted forms of government
- Inventions which advanced FinTech
- Inventions in computer science and related technology
- Inventions which connected the world via transportation, communication and information
- Development of cryptography and cyberwar
- Notable Social Movements
- Hyperinflation and National Debts
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period. This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions. Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement
So as the title says, I'm a Libertarian, I consider myself still on the Statist side, but because of a couple things that I'll ask here. submitted by
How is property official upheld in a community? I get that there's the simple, I claim this area, and I fence it off, people around me acknowledge and accept this as a legitimate claim to that land, and I own that land, whether I work it, live on it, or am holding onto it for the future to turn it into something productive, or a home.
But in ancapistan, there is no centralized legitimate authority to say, yes this is in fact "Dagreenskinorcs property". And any potential buyer, or renter, or w/e could contact me easily by grabbing information from this one centralized authority. So in ancapistan, how would this work? Is it likely that a privatized version of this would arise and with private security, they can legitimately protect and acknowledge the existence, and my ownership of that land? Or whatever other way.
This one is very important to me because I'm an automation freak and Transhumanist, I'm extremely excited for this. Negative Income Tax or similar UBI to deal with automation. So as is to be expected according to major experts like Ray Kurzweil who I love, we're fast approaching a point where AI is going to toss us out of work, right now driving jobs are in serious danger, and in America that's something like 5 million jobs that could be eliminated. We're going to reach a point soon where people will lose jobs to automation, and can't retrain fast enough before the next job is automated, meaning that without a means of redistributing the income, usually like an automation tax, people during this period are going to suffer greatly before the utopia begins. How would ancapistan deal with this period, which probably will last 10 or so years based on at least how I'm hearing experts like Ray explain. I know that in my statist system, we'd have the negative income tax, and so when we inevitably get smacked out of the job, we can live on the negative income tax as a sort of UBI. Until hopefully soon enough, money is unnecessary and we live in post-scarcity. But in ancapistan, no such safety net exists, there is charity but we can't guarantee systematically that those who still make money will donate enough to keep us chugging along until money is unneeded. Would this be perhaps where communists win because they more or less already believe in sharing production and wealth and all that?
How would transactions with currency work in a simple, quick way for the average joe? So for example nowadays it's easy, I use my credit card or debit card or American dollars and I get what I want, I see the price, I more or less know the value of my dollar and if the item I'm buying is outside my budget or if it's worth it, etc. But in ancapistan, I could have idk lets say 10 pounds of gold, 50 bitcoin, 50 dogecoin, some yen (lets say ancapistan is former United States so no dollars for this issue), some euro, etc. How would we be able to convert that into a standard, universal currency so we don't have to dick around trying to figure out how much of one currency or another will get me the item at the price it's being sold for, so I don't buy lets say a 5 dollar box of pepsi, for 50 dollars worth of bitcoin by accident. Like the only thing I can think of it maybe some sort of company will arise that automatically converts the currencies you have into one single one like a bitcoin is 5 credits lets say, a yen is 0.8, etc. But that's like a big maybe. Is there any idea in the ancap community?
City planning, roads, infrastructure, all that. How do you think ancapistan would develop from scratch? How do you think cities would grow and develop, and do you think it will be better or similar to how cities today end up? Because like for example, Chicago compared to London or some other European city, you can definitely see the age and obsolete design in European cities. They're complicated, very tightly squeezed together, about as structured as an explosion. But Chicago is like a grid, to the point that some people here more or less can just figure out where to go by looking at the addresses and not needed a map, because they know if they go this way, then these numbers go up or down, then this way will be this and that.
How would we do things like sewers, or other underground things with no state to unfortunately, but more or less say, we're putting these pipes through here and that's it. Whereas in ancapistan, I'd imagine to do this, you have to ask property owners and all that shit, and they might not necessary always agree to have something go through their property, even if it's assured that the company will pay for all maintenance, and building the pipes. Maybe they might listen more if they got paid, but that's not always guaranteed either unfortunately.
How would roads end up in ancapistan? Do you think we'd trade concrete roads for gravel in most places? Maybe ancapistanis decide they're happier going mad max during their commute on cleaned up dirt paths, our cars in such a situation built for all terrain instead of how they're built now? Would a highway exist or be considered even necessary to a free market society or is that more or less a thing of the state?
What would happen to home owners associations and what not? Would they cease to exist without the state allowing them imo, to ruin our lives or what?
How would emergency situations be handled in ancapistan? So what I mean by this is things like natural disasters. Nowadays the state moves in and tries to get people out in an organized manner, there's a huge organization effort involved that involves land, water, and air rescue. But in ancapistan, there's probably not going to be a big military like a state one, a big police force with helicopters and such, etc. How would it be handled in that situation then, or would we just rely on people getting out on their own?
How could ancapistan achieve a powerful military presence not including in any way, a militia. So like a professional army that can break anyone who tried to hurt us? The only way I can think of it maybe bigger companies pay for big bad killy military companies, and much like how they pay for many of the sites we use, parks, and wifi through simply asking for their name to be put on the thing they give money to, they tell these companies that they want their assets protected, but also their customers and workers in the area. Is that a possibility, or would we survive purely on militia?
What do we do in a hypothetical situation, where other nations decide to push in on us, not through violence, but by buying up land in perfectly voluntary transactions, and of course, being their property, they spread the rule of their government to that land. Obviously we'd have no state, so we can't make it illegal to do so, you could attack people who try this but then you'd be more or less doing what our government would do if someone tried to basically secede. Do we just accept the eating away of ancapistan by nations or what?
What if nations decide to play on the edge of it being an invasion, and simply only take up lands they know aren't property by sending people to investigate and ask around? Do you think that maybe all of ancapistan would be claimed so any incursion in that former statist society is an invasion?
What stops people who shouldn't own an rpg from saving up the cash to own one and the rockets or w/e it uses? Do we rely on companies trying to be responsible and keeping a higher reputation deciding there's no way in hell they'll sell dangerous weaponry like that?
What would be used to create a universally recognized standard of certain things like child abuse, or rape, or slavery, or whatever? As it is right now, each government, even at least as far as I know in the US, each state has its own definitions and views on those subjects. So in ancapistan, what would be used to create a universally recognized standard of law and definitions for things like that?
That's about all I can think of atm, some of these things might seem like I support one thing or another, that's not necessarily true, like the military one might make you think I support a state military, I don't at all. But these are concerns that I'm sure most other people would have so I figured why not bring it up. Some of these are concerns that keep me on the statist side, often it's the little things that could be a big pain, so maybe you'll make me see different. Hope to see some interesting answers.
Wixlar is a Global Decentralized Digital Currency based on the BlockChain Technology which is instant, secure, and private and with low fee transactions. With Wixlar coins, you can buy and sell products or services online and offline. Wixlar Group offers some of the latest advanced technological services through a Global Decentralized Network. About Wixlar If you watch our website and especially on the Videos Section and the Academy Section then you will realize that we have been actively sponsoring and participating in major global events since August 2017 as well as already existing physical offices that invited and accommodated businessmen and companies from different parts of the world that will be partnering with Wixlar. As far as the team, you can watch the professionalism of the introduction video and the high standard of individuals, financial advisors, lawyers, accountants, developers and merchants that are a part of Wixlar Group. Wixlar is the CryptoCurrency that is Decentralized using Hybrid Proof of Work and Proof of Stake launching with respect to anonymity, security, and Efficiency. L Wixlar started from Professionals points of view to solve some difficulties happening in the normal transactions such like duration of transactions, transaction fees and transaction limitations that might affect many persons and businesses in their daily work. Wixlar Coins take its power from the people that are using it and also believing in its value today and in the future. How does the project create value to the ecosystem and differs from competing projects?
What makes Wixlar unique than any other Cryptocurrency? 1. Wixlar Security: using Extreme Hashing Functions to solve any security issue with BlockChain Voting and Alerts to assure each block in the meantime. 2. Wixlar Spread: from the 1st day, Wixlar wallets are being downloaded among some of the well-known global network marketers and businessmen & women that were waiting for such cryptocurrency to launch in order to spread their business and success faster among the world. 3. Wixlar Future: the roadmap for Wixlar has been set to assure certain value for Wixlar Coin to achieve on exact dates according to some events, co-operation and long-term partnership with well-known brands and companies to take each value according to real business profit. 4. Wixlar Vision: people are no need to carry pocket money, easily you can pay for everything in your life from restaurants, cafe's, food, drinks, clothes, transportation, software, games, ... etc using Wixlar Wallet. 5. Wixlar Services: Wixlar offers more than 12 Services to the public such as Wallets, Master Card, Exchanges, Smart Contract, Letter of Credit, Cloud Storage, E-Shop, Academy, Rewards, Partnerships, Lottery, and Free-Lancing. Wixlar Cryptocurrency ICODrip is an amazing ico rating website that reviews each project submitted to them and tries to give the best ICOs and token sale information so that investors choosing to invest in any of the projects can make the best investment decision. The platform has a list of the active ICO, pre-ICOs, and the upcoming ICOs such as Wixlar ICO. The platform updates the list regularly according the latest news for each cryptocurrency. How to buy Wixlar Coin in the initial coin offering? Wixlar Cryptocurrency ICO is live; feel free to buy directly at https:// wixlarcoin.com using Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Dash, and Monero, Verge or Bank wire transfer or Credit/Debit cards. How can to get Wixlar Cryptocurrency for Free? Register your Wixlar ICO Account for Free today at https://wixlarcoin.com
to book your coins and to enjoy the 10% “Thank You” Commission by sharing your referral link with friends.
Take Advantage of the Wixlar ICO! With the CryptoCurrency Market Capitalization of over $570 Billion USD, the ICO will support funding the Wixlar Group in order to start the Road Map of Wixlar Coins and expand faster in the CryptoCurrency Market. A minimum of 60% of all funds raised in the ICO will be used for building technology projects, funding small businesses and attracting more merchants, partners, and investors. This way when Wixlar Coin goes live, it will rapidly rise in price. Allocation of Wixlar Coins The number of Wixlar Coins is limited to 5,330,000,000 Coins, out of which 30% will be available for the ICO. Bonuses available from the first day of the ICO Wixlar Coins can be purchased using Bank Wire Transfer, Visa/Master Card, BitCoin BTC, Ethereum ETH and LiteCoin LTC. All funds will be received and held in multi-signature wallets to accomplish each step on the Road Map. Wixlar ICO occurs in 5 stages In each stage, you are eligible to buy early Wixlar Coins with special bonuses than the next stage. Going through the Wixlar Road Map, After the ICO is completed, Wixlar Wallets will be available and the Coin will be listed on the Global Exchanges beside some of our services that includes Wixlar Master Card, Wixlar Free-Lancing, Wixlar E-Shop, Wixlar Smart Contract, Wixlar Letter of Credit and many more. Before you can understand ethereum, it helps to first understand the internet. Today, our personal data, passwords and financial information are all largely stored on other people's computers - in clouds and servers owned by companies like Amazon, Facebook or Google. Even this CoinDesk article is stored on a server controlled by a company that charges to hold this data should it be called upon. This setup has a number of conveniences, as these companies deploy teams of specialists to help store and secure this data, and remove the costs that come with hosting and uptime. But with this convenience, there is also vulnerability. As we've learned, a hacker or a government can gain unwelcome access to your files without your knowledge, by influencing or attacking a third-party service - meaning they can steal, leak or change important information. Ethereum is one of the newest technologies to join this movement.
While bitcoin aims to disrupt PayPal and online banking, ethereum has the goal of using a blockchain to replace internet third parties -- those that store data, transfer mortgages and keep track of complex financial instruments. Ethereum, if all goes according to plan, would return control of the data in these types of services to its owner and the creative rights to its author. The idea is that one entity will no longer have control over your notes and that no one could suddenly ban the app itself, temporarily taking all of your notebooks offline. Only the user can make changes, not any other entity. In theory, it combines the control that people had over their information in the past with the easy-to-access information that we're used to in the digital age. Each time you save edits or add or delete notes, every node on the network makes the change. About the Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference Switzerland On September 19-20, 2018 the company "Smile-Expo" will arrange the second blockchain conference in Geneve. Conference gathered the brightest experts of the industry, well-known specialists, and gurus of the crypto market, developers, and entrepreneurs, representatives of payment systems, and lawyers who shared their way of thinking concerning blockchain technology development across the globe. Crypto market analysis, business solutions within FinTech achievements, Blockchain and Bitcoin prospects, cutting-edge technologies and technical aspects of working with the smart technology, the latest regulatory changes, Bitcoin mining and exchange – all these topics and more will be raised at the Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference Geneva on September 19-20, 2018. Exhibition area Explore new blockchain software and technological solutions in the exhibition area at Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference Switzerland. Developers will present their recent creations and answer questions regarding their functional features as well as we're glad to discuss cooperation opportunities. The exhibition area is a comfortable space for business communications, allowing all attendees to find new business partners and determine further ways of business growth. Land Securities Group, the largest UK Property Firm is adopting the Blockchain Technology in the near future.
The Largest UK Commercial Property Development and Investment Company L has said that the blockchain will ‘absolutely’ play a role in its business. Land Securities Group, or Landsec, owns and manages over 26,000,000 square feet of commercial property, from London’s offices and high street shops to those of major shopping centers and retail parks. It also owns the advertising Piccadilly Lights in Piccadilly Circus, London. In a CNBC interview, Robert Noel, CEO of Landsec, was asked whether the blockchain would be used in the company. He said: Absolutely … If you look at the way what we provide, which is services to business, and those services are around contract, anything that speeds up archaic land law, and contract law, and leasing law will be welcomed. With the use of the technology in Landsec’s services, it could help to speed up processes, particularly those that require the signing of contracts and extensive paperwork. This, in turn, would help to cut down on the amount of time needed to go back and forth between varying parties. Through the blockchain, each party involved would have access to an immutable copy of the contract, which is automatically executed when each party completes their part of the process. Noel claims, though, that the technology won’t mean a reduction in actual lawyers for the company. Nowadays, as the distributed ledger gains in prominence within a range of industries and varying use cases, industries are realizing the benefits that it can provide. So much so, that law firms are experimenting with the technology to determine its impact on manual processes that they currently perform. Following the success of different ICOs of many Crypto Currencies The Billionaire Mark Cuban on Bloomberg announces the extreme investments this year of how much money being invested in supporting the Blockchain Technology. Watch the video throughout to be in touch with the Crypto Industry and its huge growth. Wixlar Group is so proud to provide its unique services and extraordinary applications for its customers that would raise the performance and the creativity of the cryptocurrencies' markets. Start using Wixlar Today! Wixlar offers its customers on the beta testing mode, the ability to buy the tickets of the Events using Wixlar Coins. Wixlar Cryptocurrency is planning to follow a lot of international events offering instant transactions and low fee payments.
Buy Tickets Today through your online Wixlar Wallet https://WixlarCoin.com
The Munich Oktoberfest is probably the world’s largest folk festival. Over the past decade it has attracted an average of around six million visitors a year, who between them consume almost seven million liters of beer and munch their way through thousands of grilled sausages, chickens, giant pretzels and - for those really wanting to soak it all up - wild oxen. The festival, which spans just over two weeks, is held annually in a meadow just outside Munich’s city center. In addition to eating, drinking, and dancing, visitors can enjoy colorful parades, a variety of fairground rides, and for those, not themselves in traditional Bavarian gear, admire those that are. Its fame and popularity mean that Oktoberfest is a huge crowd-puller and as a rule accommodation and transport have to be booked well in advance. Blockchain Middle East Forum Dubai Event Dubai announced its intention to turn itself into the first blockchain-powered government in the world by 2020. These ambitions are part of the emirate’s goal of becoming a global business hub with next-generation technology playing a key role in delivering this vision. As a result, a number of Middle East companies both private and the public have made substantial progress on understanding the opportunities, application, and preparations of adopting the blockchain technology within their organization. With this in mind, we are excited to announce the return of the Blockchain Middle East Forum which offers unique networking opportunities for attendees to connect with industry leaders and innovators who are looking to explore the distributed ledger technology.
What you can expect from the Blockchain Middle East Forum • Blockchain revolution: Learn how Blockchain is reshaping the Middle Eastern business market and how your business can stay ahead of the game • Building a Blockchain culture: Recognize how to build ecosystems of open innovation within your organization to reduce conflict and uncertainty • Learning from across the globe: Learn from international experts from the Netherlands and Ireland and discover how they are successfully adopting Blockchain within their organizations • The value of Blockchain: Understand the importance of assessing the economic viability of Blockchain solutions alongside your current business process to increase overall ROI • Creating the right path for your business: Assess Blockchain technologies and identify the least disruptive Blockchain adoption path that will support business growth and expansion of your business network • Shaping tomorrow: Discuss how the Middle Eastern market will respond to the introduction of Blockchain and learn what the future holds “The delegates attending were the right ones and we are following up on commercial discussions - a valuable opportunity.” Partner and Global Head of Operational Consulting, Analysis Mason “The whole event was very well attended and organized; there was a right balance between presentations and interactive sessions.” Director, Davis Langdon The Blockchain Middle East Forum offers you the perfect platform to showcase your solution to your target market and meet and network with senior-level decision makers who are leading the way in the industry. The Blockchain Middle East Forum specializes in providing business development, marketing, and sales solutions that are tailored to specifically deliver on your business objectives. We pay patient attention to what our exhibition and sponsorship customers want, expect, need and value. Every sponsor wants to create customers, develop qualified sales leads, convert leads into sales and retain customers.
Proof of Work and Proof of Stake In 2009, BitCoin as the first decentralized currency was implemented in practice by Satoshi Nakamoto that combined primitives to manage ownership of BitCoins through Public key cryptography with hashing algorithms is order to keep a track or blockchain of who owns coins, known as "proof of work." Proof of work solved two main problems which are provided simple algorithm that allows network nodes to vote or verify some updates of the bitcoin ledger and allowed a free entry to this process to solve the problem of who gets to influence the consensus with preventing attacks. Proof of work succeed in that by substituting a formal barrier to participation, such as each single node power in the verifying process is depending on the computing power that the node brings. After that, problem of huge power and electricity fees began to appear in order to continue working with the proof of work which led to a new alternative approach called proof of stake that is calculating the weight of a node according to its currency staking or holding only which means more power and electricity saving. The discussion showing the benefits of the two approaches proof of work and proof of stake and both approaches can be used for any cryptocurrency. Each Transaction is being placed using a wallet (web wallet, Windows wallet, APPLE Wallet, Mobile Wallet) as a block in the blockchain in order to be verified or voted among the nodes in the network, that is the Miners work in the Proof of Work and Stakers work in the Proof of stake. Transactions can be processed in less time according to many people who are interested in mining and staking and allowing themselves to become a verifying node in the network to gain some profit which makes the network alive as long as there are active nodes in the network. Anyone can check the blockchain and the number of blocks processed through the blockexplorer but for security reasons, no one can know the exact owner or receiver of any transactions which provides privacy and anonymity for network users.
BitCoin and Crypto Concepts Introduction to BitCoin and Crypto Currencies Concepts The Decentralized Digital Currency Concept has been under study for decades where there might be no authority in the middle of transactions. BitCoin as the first cryptocurrency succeed to provide anonymous transactions without exposing the identity of the sender or receiver which led to a real practical way to provide security to users and anonymity control across the Globe. Crypto Currencies came to life after huge efforts through continuous researches History of CryptoCurrencies The anonymous 1980s and 1990s electronic cash protocols were mostly dependable on a crypt-graphic primitive called Chaumian Blinding that provided new currencies with privacy control, however, their underlying protocols failed to gain attraction because they were depending on a Centralized Authority. In 1998, Wei Dai's b-money succeed to become the first proposal to introduce an innovation idea depending on creating money through solving computational puzzles and Decentralized, however that proposal did not show actually how a decentralized environment can be implemented. In 2005, Hal Finney introduced a new concept of "reusable proofs of work" which is a whole system uses combined ideas from b-money and Adam Back's computationally Hashcash puzzles in order to create a new concept for CryptoCurrency, however it failed shortly because it relied on trusted computing mechanism as a backend. In 2009, BitCoin as the first decentralized currency was implemented in practice by Satoshi Nakamoto that combined primitives to manage ownership of BitCoins through public key cryptography with a hashing algorithm in order to keep a track or blockchain of who owns coins, known as "proof of work."
Proof of Stake Proof of Work POW and Proof of Stake POS Each system has its own pros and cons, each cryptocurrency's owners choose whether to use POW or POS or even Hybrid POW/POS that uses proof of work in the beginning of the coins until specific number of coins is mined then the system will be converted automatically to proof of stake where miners are becoming stakers that stake or hold coins in their wallets in order to vote or verify on transactions. Wixlar A Future Technology in Crypto Currencies Transactions, Portable Wallets and Decentralized Applications After twelve years of experience in business trades with global companies and seven years of cryptocurrency research, Wixlar Group Co. LTD decided to launch Wixlar Coins as a decentralized cryptocurrency Hybrid POW/POS with an enhanced secured hashing algorithm to become one of the easiest ways to make safe transactions with small businesses or big businesses or even for using Wixlar Coins to buy or sell any products or services online and offline (https://wixlar.com
). 2 Wixlar Services Wixlar Group offers some of the latest advanced technological services through a Global Decentralized Network based on the BlockChain Technology to the Public, Individuals and Companies (https://wixlar.com/services
) such as Wallets, Master Card, Exchanges, Smart Contract, Letter of Credit, Cloud Storage, E-Shop, Academy, Rewards, Partnerships, Lottery and Free-Lancing. 2.1 Wixlar Wallets Wixlar Coins are securely stored in your personal wallet on your computer, tablet, phone or laptop (Windows, Linux, Mac, Android, and Paper Wallet). You can Download your wallet and immediately start sending and receiving payments with a click of a button (https://wixlar.com/wallets
). 2.2 Wixlar MasterCard Wixlar offers a Global MasterCard to Wixlar Coin Holders to easily convert your Wixlar Coins into Dollars or Euros. This way you can withdraw Dollars or Euros from any ATM anywhere in the world or even purchase goods as a normal MasterCard (https://wixlar.com/mastercard
2.3 Global Exchanges Wixlar Coins can be exchanged into any other currency like $, €, £, ¥ etc, and into any other cryptocurrency like BTC, ETH, BCC, LTC etc, through different legal exchanges (https://WixlarCoin.com/exchanges
). 2.4 Wixlar Smart Contract Through Wixlar Wallets, our users are able to create their own tokens, assets or shares through Wixlar Smart Contracts in order to take their business to the next level through Wixlar Block-chain Technology (https://wixlar.com/smart-contract
). 2.5 Innovative Letter of Credit In Wixlar Letter of Credit, the Seller accepts to receive Wixlar Coins after shipping the goods to the Buyer. The Buyer approves to send the exact amount of goods in Wixlar Coins to our Wixlar Commercial Department that holds that balance and send a notification to the seller to ship the goods. Once the goods are received or shipped according to the mutual agreement between the buyer and the seller, Wixlar Commercial Department will release the Wixlar Coins to the Seller (https://WixlarCoin.com/letter-of-credit
). 2.6 Decentralized Cloud Storage The advantage of Wixlar Cloud Storage is that it splits apart, encrypts and distributes your files across a decentralized network through the BlockChain Technology. The Decentralization eliminates any failure or theft of your files, unlike traditional cloud storage providers. You hold your personal private key in order to get access and control your files. Wixlar Decentralized Cloud secures your sensitive data through a fuzzy logic hashing algorithm that makes it much more secure (https://wixlar.com/cloud-storage
). 2.7 Wixlar E-shop Wixlar Group is excited to announce the manufacturing of its own products such as Wixlar Phone, Wixlar Tablet, Wixlar Smart Watch, Wixlar Laptop and much more. Customers are able to purchase the latest technology products through the Wixlar E-Shop with the best prices and highest quality. By purchasing any product from the Wixlar E-shop, you are having an immediate integration of your Digital Currency Wallet in your product (https://wixlar.com/e-shop
2.8 Wixlar Academy Wixlar Academy takes the next step of our users’ and partners’ success through researches. Imagine yourself getting educated about smart technology and being certified! Wixlar Academy opens the door for everyone to reveal the open-source of the knowledge in the most recent niche topics through global authors sharing all information in the same place with references and proves about each topic. There are some incentives for the global authors according to the amount of the interactions between them and the readers of their topics. Wixlar Academy is your open-source for education with references, beside some of the exciting announcements for the Wixlar Events and Partners (https://WixlarCoin.com/academy
). 2.9 Wixlar Partners Wixlar Group is excited to co-operate with partners internationally. Merchants and sellers globally accept Wixlar Coins as a payment method on their website (https://WixlarCoin.com/partners
). 2.10 Wixlar Lottery A new concept for a better life! Imagine using your Wixlar Coins to get a lottery ticket on your dream Car, Yacht or Villa and winners are picked up through a fuzzy logic faith system that guarantees highest quality processing and fastest lottery entry through Wixlar Coins (https://WixlarCoin.com/lottery
). 2.11 Wixlar Free-Lancing Wixlar Free Lancing Platform is a global online marketplace used by freelancers to offer tasks and services to customers worldwide. Everyone can become a freelancer on Wixlar Free Lancing Platform and getting paid in Wixlar Coins (https://WixlarCoin.com/free-lancing
). 2.12 Wixlar Rewards Looking for a way to get Wixlar Coins for Free through some easy tasks and assignments, Wixlar Rewards are here for you (https://WixlarCoin.com/rewards
2.12.1 Marketers and Authors Rewards Marketers and Authors that achieve certain targets will be rewarded with Wixlar Coins; Stake Holders with a certain amount of Wixlar Coins can be eligible for one of the top rewards such as Wixlar Smart Phone, Wixlar Smart Tablet, and Wixlar Smart Watch. 2.12.1 Stake Holders Rewards Some investors like to put their money in a trusted place to get an annual interest. Wixlar Group made it easy! Any user can stake any amount of coins available in his/her wallet for a duration in order to get a 10% extra Wixlar coins annually. In that case, Wixlar Coins became a great saving to investors among the variable price of the coins according to the supply and demand, plus the annual interest (staking rate). Wixlar is the only Digital Currency offering more than 12 Services to the public, individuals, and companies. Wixlar TV: Wixlar TV Channel broadcasting live 24/7 with the latest news in business and technology. Wixlar is the only Digital Currency offering more than 12 Services to the public, individuals and companies and Wixlar TV Channel broadcasting live 24/7 with the latest news in business and technology. Streaming Life internationally at https://WixlarCoin.com/wixlartv
If you watch our website https://WixlarCoin.comand
especially on the Videos Section https://wixlar.com/videos/
and the Academy Section https://wixlar.com/academy/
then you will realize that we have been actively sponsoring and participating in major global events since August 2017 as well as already existing physical offices that invited and accommodated businessmen and companies from different parts of the world that will be partnering with Wixlar. As far as the team, you can watch the professionalism of the introduction video and the high standard of individuals, financial advisors, lawyers, accountants, developers and merchants that are a part of Wixlar Group.
Bitcoin ATM kiosks are machines which are connected to the Internet, allowing the insertion of cash or a credit card in exchange for Bitcoin. They look like traditional ATMs, but they do not connect to a bank account and instead connect the customer directly to a Bitcoin exchange for a localized and convenient way to purchase Bitcoin in person. Common locations for Bitcoin ATMs are inside of a ... Find Bitcoin ATM locations easily with our Bitcoin ATM Map. For many Bitcoin machines online rates are available. Producers. Genesis Coin (4080) General Bytes (3362) BitAccess (1106) Coinsource (731) Lamassu (543) All producers; Countries. United States (9178) Canada (920) United Kingdom (286) Austria (148) Spain (104) All countries ; More. Find bitcoin ATM near me; Submit new ATM; Submit ... Find Bitcoin ATM in London, UK, United Kingdom. The easiest way to buy and sell bitcoins in London, UK. Producers. Genesis Coin (4081) General Bytes (3361) BitAccess (1105) Coinsource (731) Lamassu (543) All producers; Countries. United States (9176) Canada (920) United Kingdom (286) Austria (148) Spain (104) All countries; More. Find bitcoin ATM near me; Submit new ATM; Submit business to ... Limits: $9,000.00 ATM Type: General Bytes Open Hours: Mon-Fri: 10:00 am – 6:00 pm Sat: 12:00 am – 5:00 pm Sun: Closed Find Bitcoin ATM’s. Use this map to help find Bitcoin ATM locations. This map can show you a variety of things including the fee %, location, nearby amenities, type of machine, and type of transaction. If you have used an ATM and would like to add information about any of the things please use the ‘Report ATM’ button. If you are the owner of an ATM and would like the power to edit your ...
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